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1. One Teach, One Observe:

One of the advantages in co-teaching is that more detailed observation of students engaged in the learning process can occur. With this approach, for example, co-teachers can decide in advance what types of specific observational information to gather during instruction and can agree on a system for gathering the data. Afterward, the teachers should analyze the information together.

2. Station Teaching:

In this co-teaching approach, teachers divide content and students. Each teacher then teaches the content to one group and subsequently repeats the instruction for the other group. If appropriate, a third “station” could give students an opportunity to work independently.

3. Parallel Teaching:

On occasion, students’ learning would be greatly facilitated if they just had more supervision by the teacher or more opportunity to respond. In parallel teaching, the teachers are both teaching the same information, but they divide the class group and do so simultaneously.

4. Alternative Teaching:

In most class groups, occasions arise in which several students need specialized attention. In alternative teaching, one teacher takes responsibility for the large group while the other works with a smaller group.

5. Teaming:

In team teaching, both teachers are delivering the same instruction at the same time. Some teachers refer to this as having “one brain in two bodies.” Others call it “tag team teaching.” Most co-teachers consider this approach the most complex but satisfying way to co-teacher, but it is the approach that is most dependent on teachers’ styles.

6. One Teach One Assist:

In another approach to co-teaching, one person would keep primary responsibility for teaching while the other professional circulated through the room providing unobtrusive assistance to students as needed.

Marilyn Friend, Ph.D.

University of North Carolina-Greensboro


• EC teachers can take core area Praxis in a content area (few teachers)

• EC teachers can take 24 hours in a content area. DRM will look at their transcripts and advise. (few teachers)

• Utilization of NC Virtual Public School in partnership with the EC teacher and a core virtual Teacher of Record (Maybe PBS, maybe high functioning AU, maybe if OCS extensions are included, EC class facilitator in room)

• Inclusion Class with Core TOR and EC Co-Teacher teaching together the first part of the block period. Then the EC Teacher takes a blended group to work on reinforcement skills or Corrective Reading or Transmath. The EC instruction should take place somewhere other than the EC classroom.

• Rotation Core Teachers could be hired for English and Math to rotate into the EC classrooms serving as the TOR.

• Academic Support with re-teaching, Core Teacher is the Teacher of Record (Class would be listed as core subject not academic support)

• Utilization of Plato in partnership with the EC teacher and a core Teacher of Record (limited to 10 students at a time per school may need additional site licenses; could be used as whole class with projector)

• The EC teacher could do part time inclusion in a core class and then an academic support on that area (EC Departments may need to departmentalize in teacher areas of expertise) and the core Teacher is the Teacher of Record

• With the change in OCS curriculum, OCS and SCOS EC students may need to be combined in academic support and inclusion classes in subjects such as Algebra, and English (the new curriculum for both is on the website).

• Utilization of distance learning with core Teacher of Record and EC academic support class. (not possible due to useage in many schools)

• There could be blended classes with EC and Non EC for on-line classes (few NCVPHS)

• Core class presents information that is viewed by EC class via technology (video or skype)

• Rotation of Core Teacher of Record and follow up with Academic Support

• The homebound model has a Core Teacher of Record and a tutor delivering the instruction

• EC teachers & core teachers need to sit together to determine the essentials of the core curriculum much like the “blueprint” of the CTE courses

• Intro to English combined EC & reg ed with co-teachers (Intro to English, Intro to Algebra, Intro to Biology- 2 course numbers for same class with same blueprint)

• Middle schools possible to have academic support or TransMath/Corrective Reading as encore or part of the “pull out resource” time (a course number for reading remediation, math remediation, etc. that our EC teachers are HQ to teach)

• Similar to elementary resource with core teachers listed in NCWISE (academic support model)

• Need to provide training for the regular education teachers and EC teachers on the change of service delivery and differentiation.

• Service delivery should be determined by the assessment the student is in: if regular assessment (consultation or regular), testing with accommodations (Inclusion or regular), EXTEND 2 (Inclusion, regular or resource), PBS (separate), EXTEND 1 (separate).

• Grouping EC students for core classes may be a combo of OCS & SCOS students

• EC TAs can be used for inclusion and pull out; could be assigned to team or grade level

• EC teacher assigned to team. Team teaching with teacher of record for essentials of curriculum and then “pull out” with EC teacher for the specially designed instruction

• EC teachers can be the teacher of record for Occu Prep classes

• Middle school possible 6th grade Intro to English, Intro to math

• Professional Learning session for general education teachers at the Teaching and Learning Conference this summer.

• Will need to look closely at service delivery – academic support as an NCWISE class may not be necessary.

• *** from Cumberland County_ we have closed two general education sections to allow for a certified general education teacher to push into the OCS setting three days a week to coteach with the OCS teacher and serve as the TOR. This I only an option for some schools due to staffing patterns.

• *** from Union County- we have designated a team from each high school (regular education, curriculum coordinators, EC teachers, etc.) who will design instructional lessons on Moodle (on line classes) for the OCS classes facilitated by the OCS teachers. The TOR will be the content area teacher.